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Victor Turner: La selva de los símbolos

Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropologies

Scott Hudson and Carl Smith and Michael Loughlin and Scott Hammerstedt

(Note: authorship is arranged stratigraphically with the most recent author listed first)

Acceder: http://anthropology.ua.edu/cultures/cultures.php?culture=Symbolic%20and%20Interpretive%20Anthropologies

LOGIC WITHOUT LANGUAGE? (José Luis Bermúdez. Washington University in St. Louis)

The topic of this paper is the relation between logic, language, and reasoning. I begin by arguing that logical thinking is a type of thinking that is only available to language-using creatures. This conclusion is a corollary of a more general argument for the language-dependence of a more general class of thoughts. In the second part of the paper I discuss the implications of the language-dependence of logic for how we think about the actions of non-linguistic creatures, on the assumption that non-linguistic creatures behave (at least sometimes) in ways that need to be explained in psychological terms. On one popular model, psychological explanations depend upon assumptions of rationality that in turn depend upon the agent whose behavior is being explained being capable of certain forms of reasoning. How should we understand non-linguistic reasoning, if logical thinking requires language? The paper develops a model of proto-logic that satisfies the
requirements of psychological explanation without contravening the language-dependence of logical thinking.

http://www.estudioscognitivos.uchile.cl/JLB-logic_without_language.pdf

Antropología simbólica y neurociencia (Juan Castaingts Teillery)

Resumen

Se busca establecer una comparación entre los elementos esenciales de la antropología simbólica (en particular la de tipo estructuralista) y los resultados de la neurociencia actual. El trabajo presenta las tesis neurocientíficas de Gerald M. Edelman y de Antonio Damasio. De Edelman se resaltan las cartografías neuronales del cerebro y su relación con los procesos de categorización; se destaca la existencia de dos tipos de conciencia: primaria y extendida y su influencia en la formación de las capacidades del lenguaje. De A. Damasio, se realza principalmente la relación entre razón y emoción. Por último, se hace un estudio de la correspondencia entre los resultados de la neurociencia y los análisis de la antropología simbólica encontrándose similitudes muy importantes entre ambos.

Palabras clave: antropología simbólica, neurociencia.

http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?pid=S0188-70172008000100010&script=sci_arttext

Animal logics: Decisions in the absence of human language. Shigeru Watanabe & Ludwing Huber (2006)

“Human beings are rational animals, in other words, they have logic. The word ‘logic’ has a double meaning, as it describes both a way of thinking and one of the most ancient intellectual disciplines, with its beginnings going back to the 4th century b.c. According to the second meaning, logic is the science of reasoning. Not only because of its long history, but also mainly because of its strong influence on society, it can be viewed as the backbone of Western civilization [...]” (Watanabe 2006:235) [Leer texto completo]

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